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Tag Archives: rome
The Pantheon (“to every god”) in Rome, Italy was built by Marcus Agrippa in 27 BC and rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian in about 126 AD. The inscription translates to: “Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made this building during his third consulship”.
Nikon D3X and Nikkor 24-70mm 2.8G at 35mm, ISO 200, f/11 and 1/100 sec. Processed in Photoshop.
In the aftermath of the Battle of Actium (31 BC), Marcus Agrippa built and dedicated the original Pantheon during his third consulship (27 BC). Located in the Campus Martius, at the time of its construction, the area of the Pantheon was on the outskirts of Rome, and the area had a rural appearance. Under the Roman Republic the Campus Martius had served as a gathering place for elections and the army. However, under Augustus and the new Principate both institutions were deemed to be unnecessary within the city. The construction of the Pantheon was part of a program of construction that was undertaken by Augustus Caesar and his supporters. They built more than twenty structures on the Campus Martius, including the Baths of Agrippa and the Saepta Julia. It had long been thought that the current building was built by Agrippa, with later alterations undertaken, and this was in part because of the inscription on the front of the temple. The concrete for the coffered dome was poured in moulds, probably mounted on temporary scaffolding. The oculus is the main source of natural light. The inscription across the front of the Pantheon says: M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIUM·FECIT or in full, “M[arcus] Agrippa L[ucii] f[ilius] co[n] s[ul] tertium fecit,” meaning “Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made this building when consul for the third time.” However, archaeological excavations have shown that the Pantheon of Agrippa had been completely destroyed except for the facade, and Emperor Hadrian was responsible for rebuilding the Pantheon on the site of Agrippa’s original temple. (wikipedia)
The Fontana del Pantheon (English: Fountain of the Pantheon) was commissioned by Pope Gregory XIII and is located in the Piazza della Rotonda, Rome, in front of the Roman Pantheon.
Nikon D3X and Nikkor 24-70mm 2.8G at 24mm, ISO200, f/11 and 1/320 sec. Processed in Photoshop.
The Fontana del Pantheon (English: Fountain of the Pantheon) was commissioned by Pope Gregory XIII and is located in the Piazza della Rotonda, Rome, in front of the Roman Pantheon. It was designed by Giacomo Della Porta in 1575 and sculpted out of marble by Leonardo Sormani. In 1711, Pope Clement XI requested that the fountain be modified and had Filippo Barigioni design a new layout, which included a different basin, made of stone, and the obelisk of Ramses II set in the centre on a plinth with four dolphins decorating the base. In 1886, the original marble figures were removed, and replaced with copies by Luigi Amici. Today, the originals can be seen in the Museum of Rome. (wikipedia)
Moody Sky over Twin Churches (Santa Maria di Loreto (left) and Santissimo Nome di Maria al Foro Traiano) and Trajan’s Column in Rome.
Nikon D3X and Nikkor 24-70mm 2.8G at 35mm, ISO 200, f/8 and 1/500 sec.
Santa Maria di Loreto is a 16th century church in Rome, central Italy, located just across the street from the Trajan’s Column, near the giant Monument of Vittorio Emanuele II. After the Jubilee of 1500, the association of Bakers (Sodalizio dei Fornai) received permission from Pope Alexander VI to build a church at this site. Construction of this church began in 1507 by Antonio da Sangallo the younger, with an octagonal floor plan; the dome and the lantern were completed by Jacopo del Duca some 75 years later. The church was built atop an earlier 15th century chapel, which contained an icon of the Virgin of Loreto, hence the church retained the icon and acquired the title. It is most notable for the adjacent erection of a similarly domed, but pale marble, 18th century church Santissimo Nome di Maria al Foro Traiano, giving the semblance of twin churches.
Santissimo Nome di Maria al Foro Traiano is a Roman Catholic church in Rome, Italy. The pale marble church stands in front of the Column of Trajan, a few dozen steps from the similarly domed, but externally more colorful, church of Santa Maria di Loreto. The feast of the Holy Name of Mary was instituted by Pope Innocent XI after the victory of the Austrian-Polish armies under the command of John III Sobieski over the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683. Abbot Giuseppe Bianchi instituted devotion to the most holy name of Mary in 1685 at Santo Stefano del Cacco, and soon afterwards established the Congregation of the Most Holy Name of Mary, which was formally approved in 1688. In 1694, the congregation moved to San Bernardo a Colonna Traiani, but the next year, realizing that they needed to build a new church, they acquired the adjacent plot and had Santissimo Nome di Maria built by the Frenchman Antoine Derizet (1736-1741). In 1748, seven years later, San Bernardo was demolished, but the icon of Mary had been transferred from it to the new church in 1741. Once a year, it is carried in solemn procession from the site of San Bernardo to its present place above the high altar of Santissimo Nome di Maria.
Wide-angle (15mm) view of the interior of the Pantheon (Rome, Italy). A stream of light enters the hole in the ceiling (dome).
Nikon D3X and Nikkor 14-24mm 2.8G at 15mm, ISO 800, f/8 and 1/50 sec. Processed (converted to Black and White) in Photoshop.
The interior of the dome was possibly intended to symbolize the arched vault of the heavens. The oculus at the dome’s apex and the entry door are the only sources of light in the interior. Throughout the day, the light from the oculus moves around this space in a sort of reverse sundial effect. The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method. During storms, a drainage system below the floor handles the rain that falls through the oculus. The dome features sunken panels (coffers), in five rings of twenty-eight. This evenly spaced layout was difficult to achieve and, it is presumed, had symbolic meaning, either numerical, geometric, or lunar. In antiquity, the coffers may have contained bronze stars, rosettes, or other ornaments. Circles and squares form the unifying theme of the interior design. The checkerboard floor pattern contrasts with the concentric circles of square coffers in the dome. Each zone of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is subdivided according to a different scheme. As a result, the interior decorative zones do not line up. The overall effect is immediate viewer orientation according to the major axis of the building, even though the cylindrical space topped by a hemispherical dome is inherently ambiguous. This discordance has not always been appreciated, and the attic level was redone according to Neoclassical taste in the 18th century. (wikipedia)